Tuesday, 17 June 2014

2. Development of animation


Joseph Plateau was the first person to demonstrate the illusion of a moving image To do this he used counter rotating disks with repeating drawn images. He created this device in 1832 and called it the phenakistoscope. 

The zoetrope was invented in 1834 by William Horner, who originally called it a Daedalum.  It was based on Plateau's phenakistoscope, but was more convenient since it did not require a viewing mirror and allowed more than one person to use it at the same time. 

In 1877 charles- Emile Reynaud  developed the praxinoscope It used a strip of pictures placed around the inner surface of a spinning cylinder. The praxinoscope improved on the zoetrope by replacing its narrow viewing slits with an inner circle of mirrors. 

Edward Muybridge was an English photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, and early work in motion-picture. Muybridge is known for his pioneering work on animal locomotion in 1877 and 1878, which used multiple cameras to capture motion in stop motion photographs, and his zoopraxiscope.

Thomas Edison created the kinetoscope. The Kinetoscope was designed for films to be viewed by one individual at a time through a peephole viewer window at the top of the device. The Kinetoscope was not a movie projector but introduced the basic approach that would become the standard for all cinematic productions. 

Auguste and Louis Lumiere are credited with the world's first public film screening on December 28, 1895. The showing of approximately ten short films lasting only twenty minutes in total was held in the basement lounge of the Grand Cafe on the Boulevard des Capucines in Paris and would be the very first public demonstration of their device they called the Cinematograph 

George Pal produced dozens of Puppetoons for Paramount, and they were pleased enough to let him try feature films starting with Destination Moon in 1949. The film was a success with the public and critics and won an Academy Award for special effects, so he was allowed to make another, When Worlds Collide.


Willis O'Brien was the special effects artist who pioneered the technique of stop motion animation and the man behind the 1933 movie classic King Kong. A former newspaper cartoonist and sculptor, O'Brien began making short films in 1914.

Ray Harryhausen was an American visual effects creator, writer, and producer who created a form of stop-motion model animation known as Dynamation. His most memorable works include the animation on Mighty Joe Young, which won the Academy Award for special effects. 

Jan ┼ávankmajer is a Czech filmmaker and artist He is a self labeled surrealist known for his animations and features,  Most of his work is a mix between 3-D stop-motion animation, puppets and live-action, 

Contemporary work

Brothers Stephen Quay and Timothy Quay are  filmmakers, film directors and animators. They are identical twins most famously known as both either Brothers Quay or the Quay BrothersIn England they made their first short films, which no longer exist after the only print was irreparably damaged. 

Tim Burton is an American film director, producer, artist, writer, poet and stop motion artist. He is known for his dark, gothic, macabre and quirky horror and fantasy films such as Beetlejuice,Edward Scissorhands, The Nightmare Before Christmas. 

Aardman, is a British animation studio. The studio is known for films made using stop-motion clay animation techniques, particularly those featuring Plasticine characters Wallace and Gromit.Aardman was founded in 1972 as a low-budget project by Peter Lord and David Sproxton, who wanted to realise their dream of producing an animated motion picture. The partnership provided animated sequences for the BBC series for deaf children Vision On.

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